YK11 – 10mg/ml Liquid


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YK-11 is a synthetic steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM). It does not induce the physical interaction between the NTD/AF1 and LBD/AF2.


  • Chemical Formula: C25H3406
  • Molecular Mass: 430.541 
  • Synonyms: YK11; (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester
  • CAS Number: 1370003-76-1
  • PubChem: 119058028
  • Total Amount of the Active Ingredient: 10 mg/ml
  • Shelf Life: 36 months

Research Studies


Myostatin inhibitor YK11 as a preventative health supplement for bacterial sepsis

Muscle wasting caused by catabolic reactions in skeletal muscle is commonly observed in patients with sepsis. Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass, has been reported to be upregulated in diseases associated with muscle atrophy. However, the behavior of myostatin during sepsis is not well understood. Herein, we sought to investigate the expression and regulation of myostatin in skeletal muscle in mice inoculated with gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the protein level of myostatin was found to increase in the muscle of septic mice simultaneously with an increase in the levels of follistatin, NF-κΒ, myogenin, MyoD, p- FOXO3a, and p-Smad2. Furthermore, the inhibition of myostatin by YK11 repressed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and organ damage markers in the bloodstream and in the major organs of mice, which originally increased in sepsis; thus, myostatin inhibition by YK11 decreased the mortality rate due to sepsis. The results of this study suggest that YK11 may help revert muscle wasting during sepsis and subdue the inflammatory environment, thereby highlighting its potential as a preventive agent for sepsis-related muscle wasting.

Selective androgen receptor modulator, YK11, regulates myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by follistatin expression

The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells is induced by the novel androgen receptor (AR) partial agonist, (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis-(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11), as well as by dihydrotestosterone (DHT). YK11 is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), which activates AR without the N/C interaction. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism by which YK11 induces myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. The induction of key myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), such as myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD), myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) and myogenin, was more significant in the presence of YK11 than in the presence of DHT. YK11 treatment of C2C12 cells, but not DHT, induced the expression of follistatin (Fst), and the YK11-mediated myogenic differentiation was reversed by anti-Fst antibody. These results suggest that the induction of Fst is important for the anabolic effect of YK11.

Studies on the in vivo metabolism of the SARM YK11: Identification and characterization of metabolites potentially useful for doping controls

A steroidal compound was recently detected in a seized black market product and was identified as (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene) bis (oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11). This compound is described to possess selective androgen receptor modulator- and myostatin inhibitor-like properties. As YK11 is an experimental drug candidate and a non-approved substance for humans, scientific data on its metabolism is scarce. Due to its steroidal backbone and the arguably labile orthoester-derived moiety positioned at the D-ring, substantial metabolic conversion in vivo was anticipated. To unambiguously detect urinary metabolites of YK11, an elimination study with six-fold deuterated YK11 was conducted. Post-administration specimens were analyzed using hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to single quadrupole mass spectrometry to identify metabolites alongside basic mass spectrometric data. Further characterization of those metabolites relevant to sports drug testing was accomplished using gas chromatography-high resolution-high accuracy mass spectrometry. Fourteen deuterated urinary metabolites were detected comprising unconjugated, glucuronidated, and sulfoconjugated metabolites. As expected, no intact YK11 was observed in the elimination study urine samples. While the unconjugated metabolites disappeared within 24 hours post-administration, both glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites were traceable for more than 48 hours. The chemical structures of the two most promising glucuronidated metabolites (5β-19-nor-pregnane-3α,17β,20-triol and 5β-19-nor-pregnane-3α,17β-diol-20-one) were verified by in-house synthesis of both metabolites and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. In order to elucidate their potential in sports drug testing, both were successfully implemented into the currently applied analytical method for the detection of anabolic agents.


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The products offered on this website are intended for in-vitro studies only. In-vitro studies (Latin: “in glass”) are performed outside the body. These products are not medicines or drugs and have not been approved by the FDA to prevent, treat, or cure any medical condition, ailment, or disease. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law.